Biotechnology Applications

David Johnston CFO

June 26, 2022

 

 

David Johnston CFO pointed out that, We’ve all heard about genetically modified crops, edible vaccines, and translational medicine, but do we really understand the applications of biotechnology? Here are some examples:

Translational medicine by David Johnston CFO

There are many functional interactions required in translational medicine, and the process of translating discoveries into approved drugs is complex. Ideally, research collaborations should involve the academic community, biotechnology industry, government, and patients. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive understanding of genetic and epigenetic defects should be at the heart of translational medicine. The process of translational medicine must include a continuous feedback between diverse disciplines. Here are some examples of such functional interactions.

David Johnston CFO

Translational research involves transferring basic discoveries from the laboratory to the clinic. This process is known as bench to bedside, and it plays a central role in patient-oriented research. This research demonstrates whether basic findings from laboratory animals are applicable to human patients. For example, one study found that HER2 is overexpressing in 20% of breast cancer tumors, and that women who had tumors expressing this protein had a poorer prognosis than those with non-overexpressed cancers. Other research showed that HER2 expression was associated with increased tumor invasion.

Genetically modified crops

The benefits of genetically modified crops are many, and a major one is an increase in per-acre yields. Engineered crops also reduce the need for chemical insecticides. Areas where Bt plants were planted experienced a reduction in wide-spectrum insecticide use. Bt cotton also showed an increase of up to 30% in yield, largely due to improved resistance to bollworm infestation. Genetically modified crops are also widely used for animal feed and cosmetics.

A recent study by Conner and colleagues looked at the global food security crisis and found that GM crops were indispensable for addressing this problem. While GM crops are not the “absolute solution,” they are a useful component of an array of measures and incentives. In addition, scientists are working to make hardier crops that can survive in more difficult climates. Other uses for biotechnology include improving the oil content in crops, reducing nutrient runoff into rivers, and making them more drought-resistant.

Tissue culture by David Johnston CFO

Tissue culture was first used to study the behavior of individual cells. The human body has 100 trillion cells, and each cell has its own genetic material. Researchers are now using these cells to treat a variety of medical conditions. They also use them to develop replacement organs and tissues. Tissue culture is becoming a popular research tool, and is using to create synthetic organs and tissues. Here are some of the most common biotechnology applications of tissue culture:

Generally, there are three types of cell culture: primary culture, secondary culture, and immortalized culture. Primary culture is the process of growing cells directly from the subject, and has a short lifespan. Most primary cell cultures undergo senescence after a certain number of population doublings. Established or immortalised cell lines, on the other hand, can multiply indefinitely through deliberate modification or random mutation. These cells are considering representative of particular cell types.

Antibiotics

The recent development of an enzyme that makes antibiotics from fungal cells could help us develop better treatments for many different types of bacteria. The enzyme, known as integron, recognizes secondary structure of DNA outside the DNA helix. Understanding how the enzyme works could help us harness this ability and artificially create gene combinations. This technology could help us create new molecules that will help combat the antibiotic resistance problem. It might also help us find new antibiotics that are highly effective in combating other types of bacteria.

Another important application of antibiotics is in the development of cationic polymers. These are environmental friendly substances that attack bacteria by destroying their cell membrane. Because they can  design in any shape, they could develop to address medical needs. This new technology would be a valuable alternative to antibiotics for many years to come. This article reviews the mechanisms behind the development of antibacterial polymers, their clinical application, and their advancements.

Bioweapons by David Johnston CFO

A recent rise in the use of biotechnology to make biological weapons is raising concern. The modern revolution in biotechnology has provided the means to mass produce and test pathogenic microorganisms in the lab. As a result, nearly every country now has the technological capability to produce pathogenic microorganisms, and this has led to an increase in the threat of bioweapons. However, these new technologies also present a set of challenges.

For example, it is more difficult to detect a biological weapons program than a chemical or nuclear one. The former requires large facilities, many personnel, and years of operation. The former has a much easier time preventing its own development, unlike the latter. The United States, as well as Russia, have put significant emphasis on bioweapons response protocols. Nonetheless, it is important to note that such measures may not sufficient, and further research is necessary to ensure that bioweapons use of this technology is preventing